Program Family FAKTUS / RUT-0



Timetable construction and investigation
Support program for route management

FAKTUS/RUT is an interactive timetable construction and investigation model, especially for railway lines and junctions. Integrated journey time and occupation time calculation with graphical user interface makes it possible to create conflict free timetables with high operational quality.

The timetable construction is based on a fine, highly detailed, flexible infrastructure model. The track diagram is converted into a node-attributed directed graph (named "SPURPLAN") where switches and crossings are depicted as 3rd degree nodes. Other attributes like stop- and distant signals, contact points, change of speed etc. are depicted as 2nd degree nodes.

On the basis of the graph SPURPLAN the occupation time of switches, sections of train sequences, switch intersections and level crossings is structured to allow the allocation of conflicts between paths and routes in dependency of the signals and the safety system. This tool permits a precise determination of the buffer times and their limiting occupational elements. The scheduled waiting time for the timetable quality can be clearly specified. These offers makes an advantage compared with the manual timetable construction on the basis of time-distance-graphs.

The tool relies on a method of visualization of occupational times and conflicts which represents calculation results as informative and easily readable charts, also in the area of switch front ends and multiple track lines. This is a further development of conventional methods purely referring to track lines, of train diagram and occupational times.

FAKTUS/RUT was used for the timetable construction of certain lines of the DB Netz AG in 1996/97, after a successfully completed pilot application. With the construction of the timetable for 1998/99 FAKTUS/RUT has become the standard tool for route management on the entire network at DB Netz AG. In 2003 this tool was adjusted and incorporated into the database system by DB Systems GmbH and renamed RUT-K.


  • Brünger, O.:
    Konzeption einer Feinkonstruktion von Eisenbahnfahrplänen
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 51, 1996
  • Sauer, W.:
    RUT - Rechnerunterstützte Trassenkonstruktion
    in: Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, 48 (1999), Heft 11, S. 720 - 725
  • Brünger, O.:
    Fahrplanfeinkonstruktion mit Rechnerunterstützung - Grundlagen, Meilensteine und Visionen
    in: Informationstechnik bei den Bahnen, Edition ETR, 2000, S. 148 - 154

Railway scheduling tool



Analytical network capacity assessment

For many years analytical methodes are successfully used as the theoretical backbone of the capacity assessment of existing and future railway infrastructure.

By means of analytical models, the scheduled and unscheduled waiting time can be calculated. The scheduled waiting time is generated during the timetable construction process, where train paths have to be moved to solve conflicts. The unscheduled waiting time arises during operation because of delayed trains. For the quantification of the scheduled waiting time queuing theoretical models are used. For the calculation of the unscheduled waiting time during operation (secondary delay) probability theoretical models are used.

At first the infrastructure has to be decomposed into single channels, the so called route nodes ("Teilfahrstraßenknoten"). These are automatically separated on the basis of the infrastructure graph. For the calculation of the minimum headway time alternative routes are analysed automatically for the determination of overtaking and crossing sections. Afterwards the scheduled and unscheduled waiting time can be determined.

From a complex dataset the traffic load on each single channel is calculated. The traffic load is makes a scale of different colors that is visualized on the infrastructure. This makes it easier to identify bottlenecks and rationalisation potentials in the network.

The analytical models are especially suited for long and medium term planning of infrastructure. In most cases the future timetable is not known. The probabilistic theory is therefore suited to handle this, where different timetable independent operational systems are possible. The possibility to analyse future options within a wide range of operational systems is an effort compared to simulating tools that can only analyse a given timetable.

ANKE is just like FAKTUS/RUT based on the infrastructure model SPURPLAN. Both programs use the same route management, which makes it unnecessary to adjust and convert the infrastructure any further for the capacity investigations.

For the investigation of nodes ANKE has been the main tool at DB Netz AG and DE-Consult (DEC) since a couple of years.


  • Vakhtel, S.:
    Rechnerunterstützte analytische Ermittlung der Kapazität von Eisenbahnnetzen
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 59, 2002
  • Wendler, E.:
    Bemessungsmethoden für große Eisenbahnknoten
    in: ETR - Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau 51 (2002), Heft 7/8, S. 418 - 424

Railway network capacity assessment tool



Simulation of railway operation and scheduling

BABSI is a further developed tool of the synchronically method for the simulation of scheduling and operation of railways. With use of a new developed simulation strategy the classical questions in railway operational science can be analysed. For example dimensioning of infrastructure on the bases of a fine conflict resolution, especially on single track sections and in complex network structures better achievements can be reached. The automatically searching after alternative routes, the sectional conflict resolution, and the adaptive calculation of different conflict solution alternatives is managed by a goal function.

The tool BABSI is in cape of simulating timetables and simulating the effect of them in operation. It is also possible to solve single conflicts by s suggesting several solutions or by searching for free routes in existing timetables. The tool is also useable for the purpose of capacity saving where several routes are to be included into the timetable.

For the evaluation of the simulations the scheduled waiting time (simulation of the timetable construction) and the unscheduled waiting time (simulation of the operation) can be used. These results can be summated for each train model and for each station.

This simulation tool is especially suited for the control of different timetables and their effects in operation. With the use of BABSI the dependencies in a timetable can be modelled with respect of their stability. This is of great use before they are put into real operation.

BABSI is like FAKTUS/RUT based on the same infrastructure model SPURPLAN. Because of the in common data records (infrastructure and train data) with the same route management resources are saved since the simulation can use the already existing data.


  • Gröger, T.:
    Simulation der Fahrplanerstellung auf der Basis eines hierarchischen Trassenmanagements und Nachweis der Stabilität der Betriebsabwicklung
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 60, 2002

Simulation tool (scheduling and operation)



Asynchronous Re-Scheduling

To achieve high qualitative dispatching solutions data records must be of high resolution so that conflicts can be detected at an early stage. Making use of route management methods with detailed timetable construction based on precise travel and occupation time calculations can create new conflict-free schedules.

The ASDIS dispatching tool makes use of computer aided route management methods together with an asynchronous algorithm. With use of ASDIS, conflict-free schedules can be developed based on the actual operational status. For every deviation from the timetable that leads to new conflicts, new schedules can be established. An accurate prognosis of the further development of the trains can be estimated on the basis of accurate travel time calculation which also includes reducing adding on travel times in the case of delays. By using an asynchronous method, future conflicts can be detected and solved before they reach develop further. In this manner it is possible to realize a wide-range train dispatch.

ASDIS can be used as a support tool in the train control centre. ASDIS supports the dispatcher by creating conflict free solutions. This tool was especially developed for an automatically dispatching of trains in the control centre. Not only can rationalization potential be achieved by implementing ASDIS, but improving quality and flexibility in operation can be also be increased.

Like FAKTUS/RUT, ASDIS is based on the infrastructure model SPURPLAN. Since the data records used and the route management in operation used are the same as FAKTUS/RUT (infrastructure and train data), continuous process design can be established for the operational planning.


  • Jacobs, J.:
    Rechnerunterstützte Konfliktermittlung und Entscheidungsunterstützung bei der Disposition des Zuglaufs
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 61, 2003

Asynchronous railway dispatching tool

Program Family SLS



Tool for analytical assessment of line capacity

The software tool STRELE offers the opportunity to assess the capacity of single- or double track railway lines while taking into account the operational quality. The capacity is calculated in accordance to Deutsche Bahn's R 405 guidelines. By using the natrux of minimum headway times, the train sequences and the level of delay for each train class, the necessary buffer time is calculated taking a maximum permitted level of secondary delay into account.

STRELE consists of four modules: data input and organisation, travel and occupation time calculation, calculation of the minimum headway times and the capacity assessment. The program makes it possible to

  • accurately calculate the travel time using the Δ-v-step method and logarithmic method (graphic visualisation),
  • investigate the occupation time for operational means. The blocking time graphs form the basis for the different train models (graphic visualization),
  • calculate the minimum spacing time given in a matrix,
  • calculate the line capacity in terms of good, satisfactory and poor operational quality,
  • investigate the effect on the capacity when changes of infrastructural and operational parameters are carried out.

In this way questions on the capacity, rationalization and operational systems of railway lines can be analyzed without using a great amount of manual calculations.

Like STRESI and ALFA, STRELE is a part of the SLS tool family. This program family is the main tool for line capacity investigations at the DB Netz AG, the Federal Railway Authority and by consulting companies in Germany and neighboring countries.


  • Schwanhäußer, W.:
    Die Bemessung der Pufferzeiten im Fahrplangefüge der Eisenbahn
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 20, 1974

Railway line capacity assessment tool



Simulation program for timetable construction and operation on double track lines

STRESI is a simulation program both for timetable construction and railway operations. The timetable created in the first simulation phase, is afterwards simulated in operation. The program uses the same interactive data input as the program STRELE. Travel and occupation times are generated automatically. The programs offer following options:

  • an accurate calculation of the travel time with the Δ-v-step method and logarithmic method,
  • calculations of the blocking time graphs for each model train for the analysis of occupation time and operation
  • simulation of created timetables with their sectional occupation times. The creation of a conflict free timetable where trains have been moved and the scheduled waiting time has been recorded.,
  • simulation of operational situations with its sectional occupation times, changes in level of delay and waiting times (unscheduled waiting time, secondary delay),
  • changes of the simulation results depending on the changes of sectional and operational parameters.

The simulation follows the asynchronous method: the time-route graphs and blocking time stairs are calculated ahead of the real simulation. A train model of a certain rank is added as a whole into the timetable. This enables accurate visualization of the rank of the different train classes.

Like STRELE and ALFA, STRESI is also a part of the SLS tool family.


  • Schultze, K.:
    Modell für die asynchrone Simulation des Betriebes in Teilen des Eisenbahnnetzes
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 38, 1985

Railway line asynchronous simulation tool



Analytical calculation of capacity in nodes

Nodes in the railway network can be junctions and stations. These nodes form single and multiple channeled queueing systems. Overlapping occupation times in the node can occur when trains were to use the same path. This leads to scheduled and unscheduled waiting time for the trains.

Scheduled waiting time arise in the timetable construction process. The timetable coordinator will move trains with lower priority that receives scheduled waiting time.

The scheduled waiting time is calculated with use of the queueing theory. There is an upper limit for how high the waiting time is allowed to be before quality is lost and the node is overloaded (practical capacity).

Unscheduled waiting time arises when trains are delayed from their schedule. The secondary delay is estimated with use of probability theoretical techniques. Also here an upper limit for operational quality shall be.

The programme ALFA decomposed the complex node into smaller route nodes (Teilfahrstraßenknoten TFK). The route node is treated as a single channeled system in the queueing theory. Dependencies between the route nodes are modelled by means of a chaining algorithm.

The infrastructure data records are inserted to the programme in a similar way as for the programs STRELE and STRESI. Dependencies between the different paths in the junction are checked by means of plausibility procedures. The programme delivers a graphical track-layoutof the node too. The elements of the track are automatically referred to their belonging queueing system where the waiting time is calculated. When calculating the minimum headway times the possible conflicts of incoming and outgoing interlocking routes are respected.

The software tool supports several alternatives of track plans and operational plans. This is done with dependency of a most equally traffic load on each infrastructure element to ensure a satisfying operation.

ALFA is like STRELE and STRESI a part of the SLS software family.


  • Wakob, H.:
    Ableitung eines generellen Wartemodells zur Ermittlung der planmäßigen Wartezeiten im Eisenbahnbetrieb unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Aspekte Leistungsfähigkeit und Anlagenbelastung,
    Dissertation, Veröffentlichungen des Verkehrswissenschaftlichen Institutes der RWTH Aachen, Heft 36, 1985

Railway junction capacity assessment tool